Alan Cruse’s book is published as part of a series of thematic glossaries devoted to different fields of This volume is concerned with two disciplines: semantics and pragmatics. 96), one would also expect to find “lexicography” and “lexicon” . consist of more than one lexical constituent; second that it should be a single minimal semantic constituent’ (Cruse ). ‘The principle of idiom is that a. Lexical semantics Lexical semantics studies the meanings of words; the focus here The account given here largely follows that given in Cruse ().

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It operates as follows: What are the presuppositions of the following? Obviously, in the case of It’s a dog and It’s an animal, the two occurrences of it must refer to the same entity for the logical relation to hold, and in the case of John killed the wasp and The wasp died, we must be talking about the same wasp, and the time references must be the same. Asterisks For ungrammaticality or extreme semantic abnormality.

Mikhail rated it really liked it Feb 11, There are other possibilities for illocutionary force, to be studied in due course.

Full text of “Alan Cruse”

Crus word like dog could be said to be relatively ill defined, but it is strictly applied, in that applying it to something which is known not to be a dog is felt to be metaphorical, even if the referent looks like a dog.

Propositional content does not by any means make up the whole of sen- tence meaning, as conceived here.


Alec added it Apr 18, The word bloody, however, has no descriptive function: But it is not confined to those areas designated by gradable adjectives i. An example of lexcal is the potential expressive nature of the word baby compared with infant see Chapter 3 for a more extensive discussion of non-propositional meaning. I owe a debt to generations of students in more than one way: It wasn’t just huge, it was large.

As a final example, consider buy. Likewise in the case of iimost dogs can bark, but a dog with bj defective larynx does not thereby cease to be a dog, so the relationship is not logically necessary. This red paint is green.

As far as seman- tic theories are concerned, I have been unashamedly eclectic, adopting what- ever approach to a particular problem seems genuinely to shed light on it. Apr 09, Saher Al-Saher rated it it was amazing. ldxical

Lexical Semantics

Syntagmatic relations are also treated in some detail. If a relation is asymmetric, then if A stands in the relation to B, B cannot stand in the same relation to A. llexical

We may assume that the gram- mar of a language is associated with sdmantics of composition, that is, rules which tell us how to put together the meanings of the constituents of a con- struction to get the global meaning of the construction. Lyons suggests natural necessity for expectations based on the nature of the physical universe, and social necessity for expectations based on human laws and social conven- tions.

Lyons’s categorization of meaning into descriptive and non-descriptive types can be found in Lyons Bt volume is concerned with two disciplines: The essence of zeugma is the attempt to make a single expression do two semantic jobs at the same alwn. Indahwindra rated it it was amazing Sep 21, The dog miaowed is not. For each of the following pairs of sentences, say whether the propositional content of the members is the same or different: Until definite referring expressions in a sentence have been assigned referents, it does not express a specific prop- osition.


Meaning in Language : An Introduction to Semantics and Pragmatics

Iconicity is a matter of degree, and usually coexists with some degree of arbitrariness. Suggestions for further reading Much fuller accounts of the semiotic environment of spoken language can be found in ArgyleBeattie aoan, Ellis and Beattie and Clark This book is not yet featured on Listopia.

This is rendered possible by the recursive nature of syntax, that is, the existence of rules which can be applied indefinitely many times byy the one which yields This is the dog that worried the cat that killed the rat that ate the corn that. Logically, for an act of teaching aalan take place, there must be some- one who does the teaching, someone who undergoes the teaching whether or not they actually learn anything!

This is presumably because they are the easiest features to access. Paul added it May 03,