This standard is issued under the fixed designation C ; the number immediately 1 This test method is under the jurisdiction of ASTM Committee C09 on. All the Controls products ASTM C standard. Enter now!. Originally approved in Last previous edition approved in as C – 05a. 2 For referenced ASTM standards, visit the ASTM website,

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Great article that gives a simplified overview of ASR, expansion testing, and mitigation techniques. Development of a more economical and more abundant admixture may be the future for ASR mitigation. The cracks radiate from the interior of the aggregate out into the surrounding paste. However, some cases of concrete failure could not be attributed to either of these causes, prompting a deeper investigation. However, we must take the time to review the current ASTM standards and check our mix designs to assure material confidence.

Search Ast, search terms: Many consider C to be the c12660 test method for evaluating deleterious ASR potential because it provides the strongest correlation to field performance. Non-metal atoms gain an electron, or electrons, from another atom to become negatively charged ions. Metal atoms lose the electron, or electrons, in their highest energy level and become positively charged d1260. Skip to main content.

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When siliceous aggregate is attacked by an alkali solution, it is converted to a viscous alkali silicate gel. Clinker alkali had no astmm little effect on moderately reactive aggregate; whereas it had considerable effect on highly reactive aggregate.

However, C takes one year to perform when evaluating aggregate reactivity, or two years when evaluating the efficacy of SCMs to mitigate deleterious expansion.


Ask your aggregate provider sstm for test results before contacting a laboratory. As stated earlier, many precasters will not have issues with ASR. Keep in mind that some cements contain a higher proportion of potassium sulfate K 2 SO 4 than sodium sulfate C12600 2 SO 4.

A petrographic examination of aggregate will give a comprehensive description of the aggregate source and quantify the various rock and mineral constituents present. Civil, Construction and Environmental Engineering Publications. Consequently, the two tests are often run together.

ASTM C Potential Alkali Reactivity of Aggregates | CTLGroup

Cracking usually appears in areas with a frequent supply of moisture. If you can read like a chemist, it looks like this: The same goes for calcium, but since it is in the second column of the periodic table, it must lose two electrons for this to happen.

You have just begun the journey into understanding your own materials as they relate to ASR.

C is used to test the reactivity potential of aggregates, while C includes the use of secondary cementitious asstm within the mortar bar samples to determine the effective reduction of ASR. Atoms are comfortable with themselves when they are fully loaded on that outer band. This test is similar to C with a testing period of 14 days. Signs of ASR are typically random map-cracking and spalled concrete.

Specification of fineness and alkali content of cement, or both, might be beneficial to further improve the reliability and reproducibility of ASTM C If ASR has been identified by the specifying authority axtm the region, it is recommended that precast producers perform long-term testing on concrete samples.

This is a result of a number of sequential reactions. For ASR to occur, four things must be present: That, honestly, is about as simple as I can explain this reaction.


By Frank Bowen A s I scrolled through the few articles and reports I have collected over the past decade regarding alkali-silica reactions, I began to realize I had developed an ignorance to this elusive subject. Although cement fineness and clinker alkali content did not affect the classification in terms of potential reactivity of the aggregates used in this study, they might change the classification for the aggregates near the boundary between reactive and nonreactive aggregates.

At least, this was the blame at the time. Highly reactive aggregate tended to be more sensitive to cement fineness and alkalinity.

The alkali content of cement is not a significant factor in affecting the expansion. Regardless, here is a list of key ASR points for precasters to know: What we do know, however, is important for precasters to understand. This test exposes specimens to a solution of sodium hydroxide NaOH.

Frank Bowen, a Master Precaster graduate, received his M. This is all critical to ASR to show where the reactivity is taking place.

Filling in the Blanks on Alkali-Silica Reaction

Petrographic examination can conclusively identify ASR. Federal Highway Administration, fhwa. When dealing with ASR, a process that takes place over decades, accelerated tests should be conducted with bias.

In addition to discovering ASR, he was the first to explain that expansion was negligible when the alkali content of the cement was below 0. In this study, high and low alkali portland cement clinkers were selected and ground with gypsum in a laboratory ball mill to three fineness levels: